Artificial Vegetative – Every living thing certainly reproduces to continue its offspring. Breeding here means creating new creatures from the same species. Living things reproduce in order to multiply offspring and prevent their species or species from becoming extinct. Living things that can reproduce are creatures that are already adults.
Not only humans and animals, plants also reproduce. They have the same goal, which is to reproduce the species. The process of breeding or forming new individuals in plants is carried out to maintain the continuity of the offspring of that species. The process of reproduction can be done sexually (generative) or asexually (vegetatively).
Sexual reproduction produces new offspring by fusion of the gametes of the parents. The resulting offspring have different genetic characteristics from their parents. Whereas asexual reproduction produces new individuals without gamete fusion, so that the resulting new individuals inherit the same genetic characteristics as their parents (unless a mutation occurs).
On this occasion, Gramedia will explain about artificial vegetative plant propagation techniques. To find out in full, see the following article description.
Plant Vegetative Propagation
Vegetative propagation in plants is further divided into two parts, namely artificial and natural vegetative propagation. Here are the differences.
1. Artificial Vegetative Propagation
Artificial vegetative propagation is the process of plant reproduction not through marriage, but using human intervention (with human assistance). Propagation of plants without mating with human assistance is called artificial vegetative propagation. Here are some ways of artificial vegetative propagation.
2. Natural Vegetative Propagation
Vegetative propagation naturally means that plants reproduce without human assistance. This breeding is also not through marriage or pollination. However, this reproduction is carried out by the plant itself as well as other plants. Here are some ways of natural vegetative propagation.
Artificial Vegetative Examples
Grafting is the process of propagating plants by damaging the stem. This graft will make the stem have roots. Since plants cannot do this on their own, they need human assistance.
Once the stem branch is injured, cover it with soil with plastic wrap. Use clear plastic to make it easier for you to observe plant growth. After the plant grows, the roots can be cut.
Then, when the cutting is complete, the plant can be planted in a pot or elsewhere. Plants that can be grown by grafting usually have dicot seeds. Dicots are plants that have a wood element. Examples of plants that reproduce by grafting buds are mango, guava, sapodilla, orange, longan, rambutan, and guava.
a. Benefits of Grafting
The advantages of grafting include:
1) Faster in Producing New Plants
Grafting can be done without waiting for growth, flower pollination, seed growth, and seeding. Grafting only requires cutting or slicing the skin on a branch of a plant, so this method will be much faster than natural (generative) reproduction.
2) Produces New Plants with Uniform Characteristics
Grafting is propagating by vegetative means (not mating) so that the resulting seedling plants have the exact same characteristics and genetic material as the parent plant. This is because there is no merging of genetic material between two individuals as in breeding by means of mating (generative).
Because it has the same characteristics as its parent, this method can be used to produce high-yielding seedlings in large quantities, such as to produce plants with uniform size and fruit taste.
3) Produces New Plants in Large Numbers
Due to the relatively fast grafting process, we can use this grafting method to get lots of new plant seeds in a short amount of time.
b. Disadvantages of Grafting
Disadvantages of grafting include:
1) No New Genetic Diversity
The saplings produced from the grafting process will be exactly the same because they are cloned from the parent. Grafts cannot develop new varieties because there is no gene pooling.
2) You Can’t Cross Two Types of Plants
Through grafting means you can’t cross two different varieties, so new types of hybrid plants can’t be produced.
3) Produced Plants are Vulnerable to Disease Outbreaks
Because the genetic material of the grafted seedlings is exactly the same, if one plant is affected by a disease, the other plants are also at risk of being infected by the same disease.
Grafting is the propagation of plants by attaching pieces of shoots from the stem of one plant to the stem of another plant. The grafting method helps improve the quality and quality of the plants. Grafting is done to produce the best plant properties and obtain quality seeds. Examples of plants propagated by grafting are cocoa, rubber, mango, longan, avocado, lime and frangipani.
The basic principle of grafting is the attachment or joining of the rootstock with the upper stem. Grafting requires its own technique so that the purpose of grafting can be successful. The expected advantage of rootstocks in general is a good root system, while the upper stems are expected to have better breeding results.
If grafted seedlings are planted in the field, they are usually called grafted plants and if those grown from seeds are usually called seedling plants. There are two kinds of grafting techniques, namely traditional grafting techniques and green grafting techniques.
a. Benefits of Grafting
Propagation of grafting itself turns out to have several benefits. Here are the benefits of grafting.
1) The process of fertilization or reproduction is faster
The existence of grafting can impact on a faster breeding process. The reason is, this is influenced by the age of the plant and superior parental characteristics, as well as fast growth.
2) Plant Productivity Will Increase
As a vegetative propagation technique, grafting can increase the productivity of a plant. Because, this process is supported by the parent or seeds with high production. This is what drives the increase in quality and productivity of plants resulting from profitable grafting.
3). Plants Grow More Uniformly
Uniform properties will emerge from the results of plants bred by grafting. This is because grafting is a vegetative propagation technique without fusion, so that one parent plant can reproduce itself and its offspring have identical characteristics.
b. Graduation Terms
1) Not Plants with New Leaves Growing
The grafting window in the form of skin has properties, one of which is influenced by the process of forming new leaves. When a plant is growing new leaves, the skin that is slashed for the grafting window will dry faster. For this reason, this new leaf determines the success of the grafting technique.
2) Free of Pests or Diseases
Either the plant from the bud or the mother plant, both must be free from disease or pest infections. This needs to be anticipated so that grafting avoids the risk of failure. This is because pests and diseases in plants can interfere with the grafting process.
Not only that, plants that are attacked by pests or disease will actually later become a source of infection in grafted plants.
3) Age of the Upper and Lower Stems are the same
The similar age of scion and rootstock will support the success of the grafting process because it greatly influences the speed of bud formation. This supports the need for age harmony between the two parent plants.
Plants that are made as rootstocks, should come from seeds so that the roots are stronger, so they are relatively drought resistant. Not only that, the rootstock must also be able to attach properly and support the growth of the scion without causing negative effects. This is why it takes the same stem age.
4) Both Plants Must Come from the Same Genus
It is important that the two plants used for grafting come from the same family or genus. Own grafting is rarely applied to plants of different genera because it has a low success rate. This is due to physiological differences between plants that can occur, so it is necessary to avoid grafting using plants of the same genus.
Cuttings is the process of propagating plants by using plant body parts such as roots, leaves and stems. Plants are totipotent, that is, they divide to form other cells. The other cells are complete and resemble their parents.
Several types of plants have their own conditions in accelerating the propagation of cuttings. High light intensity allows the cuttings to root more quickly, but the temperature must be maintained as this can cause stress. A study conducted by the USDA on azaleas showed that disinfecting them with warm water prevented the growth of fungi that interfered with propagation.
Tea plants should also not be propagated from old tea plant body parts because candidate vegetative cells are no longer available and their position is replaced by generative cell candidates. Cuttings from cuttings of old tea plants cause the cuttings to flower early.
This way of cuttings can be done in three other ways as follows.
a. Stem Cuttings
This method is widely used because it is the easiest to understand and has a very high success rate. The method of propagation uses stem cuttings by cutting the part of the stem that has joints or eyes.
You do this by choosing the part of the plant that can be cut must be old. Make sure there are 3-4 knots on the stem. Then, make sure the cutting distance between the bottom segment is 0.5 cm and the top distance is 1 cm. After cutting it sharply, you can stick it into the ground. Examples of plants that can be cultivated with stem cuttings include breadfruit, cassava, longan, rosemary, pomegranate, chilies, tomatoes, coffee, moringa trees, kale, grapes, and roses.
b. Leaf Cuttings
If stem cuttings use stems to propagate plants, leaf cuttings use leaves to propagate plants. The trick is to pick old leaves and cut them along with the stems underneath to make it easier to grow.
In addition, the leaves must first be soaked in an auxin solution. After that, entering the nursery stage of leaf cuttings. At this stage, the leaves are stuck in the ground and covered with perforated plastic. Plants that reproduce by using leaf cuttings are wijayakusuma plants, sri fortune, cacti, aloe vera, cocoa duck, and also begonias.
c. Root Cuttings
The method of propagation of root cuttings is by using parts of the plant body, namely roots. Usually used to lift plant roots. The secret is to remove the growing roots and cut the roots 5 to 10 cm in diameter.
After cutting the roots, the next step is sowing, the roots are buried in a mixture of soil and organic fertilizer. During the root filling process, care must be taken not to damage the roots. Then water the plants regularly. Examples of plants propagated by root cuttings include strawberries, guavas, cypresses, apples, albasia, and breadfruit.
Mententen or copulation is the activity of combining the rootstock and scion of a plant. This activity certainly requires human assistance. So, binding involves artificial propagation. However, grafting can only be done with similar plants.
The copulation technique is almost the same as the grafting technique because it requires good plants. Therefore, make connections between plants that have one advantage and plants that have the other. Plants that can reproduce by copulation include coffee, durian, cassava, tomatoes, eggplants and mangoes.
Mententen is an artificial (vegetative) propagation method, in which two different types of plants are combined into one with the lower part (root and main stem) originating from the same plant (one plant).
Mententen has the benefit of being able to combine the superior properties of two different types of plants. For example, there are mango varieties that have strong and deep roots but the fruit doesn’t taste sweet, while other varieties have roots that aren’t strong but the fruit tastes sweet.
By grafting, you will be able to combine these two properties, with the lower part of the seeds taken from plant varieties with strong roots, while the upper part is taken from varieties that have a sweet fruit taste.
Mententen can also combine two plants that have different species. For example, we can graft the bottom part of the potato plant, while the top part is taken from the tomato tree. The result is a plant that produces potato tubers and tomato fruit.
Tomatoes ( Solanum lycopersicum ) and potatoes ( Solanum tuberosum ) can be combined even though the species are different, because both come from the same genus, namely Solanum , so they are closely related and have the same plant structure.
Mententen is done by cutting the plant buds in a V shape, so that the top and bottom can be combined. This connection is then closed and tied. At the top the leaves are usually cut, but left a little, to reduce evaporation while accelerating the growth of shoots.
Recommended Reading related to Plant Propagation
1. Plant Smart Book
This book presents everything we need to know about the world of plants in the easiest way but dense and rich in knowledge. Equipped with hundreds of supporting photos and illustrations, this book will not only be enjoyable to read, but will also make it easier for readers to learn about plant life in a fun way.
2. Kepok Tanjung Banana Tissue Culture
The e-book on tissue culture of Kepok Tanjung bananas is still difficult to obtain, even though the need for a technical manual for the production of Kepok Tanjung banana seeds using this tissue culture technique is urgently needed. It is hoped that this e-book can become a reference for students, lecturers/academicians, researchers, practitioners in the field of plant tissue culture, who have an interest and concern for Kepok tanjung bananas as a rare and unique biological natural resource (SDAH) that needs to be preserved.
3. Plant Anatomy
This book discusses the parts of the plant body, cell structure and function of each cell organelle, and the various tissues that make up plants. This book also discusses in detail the organs that make up plants, namely roots, stems, leaves and flowers, as well as primary and secondary growth as well as aberrant growth. Delivered in easy to understand language and complete examples.
4. The Enchantment of Ancient Plants
This book is read from teenagers to adults. The book entitled Enchantment of Ancient Plants by Drs. Agus Andoko and Setyoaji Koemoro are written using light vocabulary so readers can easily understand the contents of this book. It is hoped that with this book readers can understand related knowledge related to ancient plants.
This book is presented as a practical guide for lovers of these four ancient plants that are much older than these dinosaurs. It explains how to plant, care for, propagate, and how to deal with pests and diseases so that the ancient plants you have can look their best.